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有机农业不是回归传统,看德国有机农业有哪些“黑科技”

时间: 2016-03-22浏览次数:3835
德国有机农业核心是建立和恢复农业生态系统的生物多样性和良性循环。在有机农业生产系统中, 作物秸秆、畜禽粪便、豆科作物、绿肥和有机废弃物是土壤肥力的主要来源, 作物轮作以及各种物理、生物和生态措施是控制杂草和病虫害的主要手段。

德国有机农业核心是建立和恢复农业生态系统的生物多样性和良性循环。在有机农业生产系统中, 作物秸秆、畜禽粪便、豆科作物、绿肥和有机废弃物是土壤肥力的主要来源, 作物轮作以及各种物理、生物和生态措施是控制杂草和病虫害的主要手段。

但是这一农业系统并不是简单回归传统农业, 而是充分应用了现代科学技术的最新成就。总的原理,是通过各种农艺措施,创造有利于作物的生长环境条件和能够抑制病虫害的环境条件。同时通过农牧共生兼营,维持土壤氮素平衡。

土壤病毒诊断及去除

zhanhou, deguonongyeshengchandedaolejiaodadefazhan, gaochanzuowujigaoshuifeihuanjingdechixu, “turangbing” jizuowulianzuozhengyuelaiyueyanzhong。jinnianlai, deguodezhibaokexuetongguohuaxuejishu, congturangzhongfenlijiandingxiangyingdezhiwudusu, bazheixiejileidedusucongturangzhongqinglichuqu, zuowujiukeyijiankangdichengzhang。zheiyijishuyizainongyeshengchanzhongdedaotuiguangyingyong, erqieyuxiandailiyongtuxiangchulijishujinxingmubiaotizidongshibiexiangjiehe。

创造益生生物环境

日博体育 weilejiyishengshengwutigongshidangdeshengcunhuanjing, youjinongyeshengchanjishutixiyaoqiubaohushikongdeduoyangxinghelianxuxing, deguonongyetichangzaitongyiquyuzhongzhiduozhongzuowujibaoliufeishengchanxingzuowudeshengzhangquyu。

日博体育 tichangshaogengfa, baohuturangjiegou;jianshaofangeng、tubiaodejixieshiyong, gaishanturangjiegou。zheiyangjikeyibaozhengwendingheduoyanghuadeshiwugongyingyijiyingyefengfudeshiwu, ciwaiduozhongzuowugongshenggongcun, zengqiangletianjiankunchongdengyishengshengwudeshengcunhuanjing, zengqianglexitongdewendingxing。

合理轮作倒茬及间作

deguoyoujinongyezongjielechuantongnongyezhongzaizuowudedaocha、lunzuo、jiantaozuodengfangmianfengfudejingyan, duiguwu、dadou、mailei、guoyuan、shucaidenglianzuozhangaihe“chakou” wenti, kejirenyuanhenongchangzhucaiyonglexiangyingdelunzuo、jiantaofangshiyuyijiejue。butongdezuowujian、tao、hunzhong, youxiaodikongzhilebingchonghaideweihai, yeyouliyukongzhizacaodeshengzhang。caiyonghelidezaipeijishu, ruzengjiafugai、diaozhengboqihechengshuqi、liyongkangnipinzhong、yingyongzhiwushachongjijiquchongjideng, shinongyeshengchanxitongdebingchonghaijianshaodaozuixiao。

日博体育 zhideyitideshi, deguonongyeshigegaodujixiehuadechanye, jian、taodengnongyicuoshiduinongjijizuoyetichulexindeyaoqiu。anzhaowutiaojianmanzukehuyaoqiudeshangyejingshen, deguonongyejixiejinxingleduozhongpeitao, congermanzulezheizhongyaoqiu。deguonongyejixiedezhiliangjipeizhibiaozhunjiaogao, zhengfuyouguanjigoumeinianduinongjijujinxingshenjian, yibaozhengqigaoxingneng。

控制病虫害发生的环境条件

turangzhongbingyuanjundeshengzhang, yinqizhongleidebutong, duishiyuqishengzhangdesuanjiandu(phzhi)youyidingyaoqiu, rushiyiweisuanxingdeyougenzhongbing、ziwenyubingjundeng;shiyisuanxingdeyoufumeijun、wanyibing、sishumeijun、baiwenyubing、baijuanbing、huangweibing、junhebingjundeng;shiyisuanxing—ruosuanxingdeyoulianbaojundeng。turangchuanranbingjunchumalingshubingjunwai, qitajihudoushizhenjun, suoyidouxisuanxingturang。

yinci, ruguobaturangdesuanjiandudiaozhengdaozhongxingzhijianxing, jiunengyufangturangchuanranbing。xiangdangyibufenzhiwubinghaiyuwendu、shidujiguangzhaodengxiangguan, deguokexuejiazhenduizuowujutibinghai, zhidinglebutongdezuowuzaipeifangan, tongguolonggou、jianxiaomidu、suoshaoyubidu、zengqiangtouguanglaikongzhibingchonghai, qudelejudaxiaoguo。zainongchangyixingchenglebutongzuowushishixiangyingdezaipeifangan, congeryouxiaodikongzhilebingchonghaidefasheng。

注重施用有机肥

日博体育 deguoyoujinongyechuyanjinshiyonghuafei、nongyaodengwaiyuanhechengwuzhi、jianshaojixiepohuaiwai, haishifenzhuzhongtigaoturangyoujizhi, jifangxianjunyifengfudeyingyang, chengweiyoushijunqun, kongzhinongzuowubinghaifashengweihai。tigaoturangyoujizhidecuoshibaokuozhongzhilvfei、shengendoukezuowu、nongdixiuxian、zengshiyoujifeiliaodeng。

oumenggulizhizaigailianghuanjingdenongyebutie, deguodenongyezhichizhengceshizhongshichuyuoumengtongyidenongyezhichizhengcekuangjiaxia, yuzhibaochiyizhi, bingsuizheoumengnongyezhichizhengcedeyanbianerbianhuafazhan。zaibutiezhidushang, oumengduinongyebuzaishixingchanliangbutie, ershiyijubutongzuowudemianjibutieheduishengchudetoushubutie, yijixiugengdimianjibutie。

农牧结合维持土壤氮素平衡

deguojiatingnongchangduoyiyangchuweizhu, jianyingzhongzhiye。zaizhengfuzhengcegulixia, youjinongchangzhishiyongyoujifei, shichumuyehezhongzhiyexianghucujin, gongtongfazhan, jianshaolehuafeishiyongguoduoduituranghuanjingdewuran。deguonongyedeyigexianzhutedianshichumuyeshifenfada, shiyigeyichumuyeweizhudenongyejiegou, chumuyechanzhizhannongyechanzhide60%yishang。zheizhongshengchanjiegoudadatigaolenongchanpindefujiazhi, weirenmentigonggaozhiliang、gaoyingyangderurouzhipin, zaigaishanrenmendeyinshijiegou, tigaoshenghuoshuipingdetongshi, yezengjialenongyechanzhi。

zhongzhiyeweichumuyeshengchanle80%yishangdeguwusiliao,lingwaijin20%desiliaowentizeyoujinkoujiejue。fadadechumuyeshideguoyoujinongyedefeiliaojichu。

应用植物化感技术增强作物抗逆能力

deguonongyeduixiandaijishudeyingyong, youliyuhuanjinggailiang, cujinlenongyekechixufazhan。nongxuejiaxunzhaodaoxindetujing——zhiwuqiangzhuang, zengqiangzhizhukangxing。yongzishenbaohutidaiyaozhi, baohubifangzhigengzhongyao, zheishideguonongyejiedepubianrenshi。

deguodenongzidengjizhong, youyilanzhiwuqiangzhuangjidewuzi, zhuanzhizengqiangzhiwukangninenglidenongzi。ciwai, deguonongyezhongyingyongzhiwuyuanwuzhihuoshengwuhuoxingwuzhixiufudiaoliturang, xiaochuturangbinghaiduizuowudeyingxiang。



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